1、合作:cooperate、join forces、make joint efforts、work side by side;
2、支持，赞成:uphold、agree with、in favor of、approve of;
5、永远的:eternal、perpetual、lasting throughout life;
7、年轻人：young people、youth、youngster、young adult ;
9、一些：a range of、a variety of、a series of、an array of ;
11、利用：use、take advantage of ;
12、想法：frame of mind、mind set、the way one is thinking ;
13、支持：support、endorse、uphold、back up ;
15、偶尔：now and then、from time to time、at times;
17、需要：require、need、demand、it is necessary for..to..;
18、解释：tell、explain、spell out、say how;
20、依序列举：list in sequence。
我们先从两者的定义入手来看两者的区别。Compare的定义为：to examine people or things to see how they are similar or different. Contrast的定义为：to compare two or more things to show the difference between them.由定义不难看出前者侧重于找到两个或多个事物的异同,而后者则侧重于它们的不同。看个例句：
It is interesting to compare their situations to ours./It is interesting to contrast their situations to ours.
再看一个引自OXFORD ADBANCED LEARNER’S DICTIONARY的例子：
There is an obvious contrast between the culture of East and West.
The company lost $7 million in contrast to a profit of $6.2 million a year earlier.
When you look at their new system, ours seems very old-fashioned by contrast.
我们知道, think, assume, claim是议论文中常用引出观点的动词。在实际作文中,同学们往往认为几个词的意思是一样的,完全可以代换,所以拿过来就用。甚至还有同学把consider也拿过来与之混用。我们首先还是从定义来看这几个词的不同：
Think：to have opinion or belief about sth.
Assume：to think or accept that sth is true but without having proof of it.
Claim：to say sth is true although it has not been proved and other people may not believe it.
翻译为“声称”,用这个词往往意味着不赞同紧跟其后的观点,所以很少用作‘I claim that…
Scientist are claiming a breakthrough in the fight against cancer, but in fact,…。
所以‘It is claimed that’通常翻译为“有报道称。。。”。和‘it is reported that’的区别在于后者翻译为“据报道”,往往代表着作者赞同报告的内容,
Consider：to think about sth carefully, especially in order to make a decision
We are considering buying a new car.
I suggest he continues his study instead of working after graduation from high school.
Recommend, suggest, advise
4.such as与for example的混用
我们知道,在表示举例子的时候,such as与like是完全等同的,如：Wild flowers such as/like orchids and primroses are becoming rare.
但是同学们对于Such as、for example的把握还是不够准确。我们都知道,后者接句子前者接词语表示举例子。于是就有了下面的写法：
There is a similar word in many languages, such as in French and Italian.
这里的such as改为for example为好,因为“in French and Italian”其实是“there is a similar word in French and Italian”的简化,所以要用for example来引出例证。再来看几个类似的例子：
It is possible to combine computer science with other subjects, for example physics.
Students should spend at least one year working or travelling before they go to the university.
题目：Do you agree or disagree with the following statement:
Students should take at least a year to work or travel before beginning college.
Do you agree or disagree with the following statement: After high school, students should have at least one year to work or travel. It's better than attending university straight away.
The prevailing notion is that high school students are under huge pressure. Then appears a controversy whether students should have one year to engage in other things before they attend their university. After weighing the pros and cons, I am favor of the opinion that having a gap year can produce many benefits.
First off, students can benefit a lot from traveling. As everyone knows, to maintain strong competitiveness, high school students are required to accomplish a wide range of either required or optional curriculums at school and the rights to develop their own interests have been deprived relentlessly, which has proven to be a detriment of their growth. Instead of pursuing their bachelor degree without pause in the college, traveling can help them regain chances to cultivate and perfect their personalities and release pressure. For instance, many more college graduates are reported to be indifferent to the society and show no mercy on those in need, part of which owes a lot to the fact that schools lay more emphasis on cultivating students’ academic abilities and downplay the importance of developing their overall qualities. Traveling to those places in poverty can give students a sight of those impoverished families to call on the sense of responsibility. Besides, by paying a visit to some places of interest like the Great Wall or the pyramid in Egypt, students can approach the greatness of diverse culture. What’s more, the direct access to the natural world can appease students’ inner uproar. Accordingly, a gap year can be a great asset for high school graduates.
Secondly, by taking part-time jobs, not only can students accumulate sufficient social experience but also earn some money to reduce financial stress on their families. Though economy in China keeps growing at a rate of almost 9 percent in the recent, average citizens still suffer huge pressure especially when the slump of stock market took a heavy toll on them and the majority of stock investors withdrew their money and reinvest to the real estate, further increasing pressure on the ordinary because of the increasing prices of housing. For most families from small cities and rural areas, college tuition still appears to be a great burden on them and by taking part-time jobs, students can earn some wages to relieve financial pressure, such as serving as a restaurant attendant that enables students to better develop their communication techniques and learn more about how to meet the demands of consumers or working as a salesman that will be an entirely different experience from high schools and can lead to the cultivation of the ability of presenting customers the advantages of products. Obviously, a gap year means a lot to high school graduates.
Admittedly, there is another voice that high school students are supposed to start their campus life immediately after graduation from high schools. To be more specific, maintaining high-efficiency study can lead students to be better acclimated to their college life. Instead of going to college soon, a gap year may disrupt their study schedule and weaken their learning skills. It appears to be sensible, however; the ultimate goal of attending a university is to seek a decent job and gaining social experience in advance makes students more conscious of which kind of area they are more interested in in the near future such as the serving industry or high-tech fields.
In conclusion, high school graduates had better live a different life temporarily before they go to college.
Gap year, a break between high school and college, has become a trend among many American and European students theses years. As the popularity of gap year has grown, so to has its appeal. Generally, it can be constructed (working in a company, taking time off to improve coding skills, learning a language, working on personal projects) or unconstructed (travelling, figuring out what to do as it comes). The idea of gap year has been strongly questioned by some nervous parents, however, some supporters contend that it will be a lifelong treasure which enables one to have the full command of his life. From my perspective, taking a year to work or travel before college brings about more advantages than shortcomings.
To begin with, a gap year helps guide students’ future education and life goals. Most of young students do not know exactly what they wanted to do once they left high school or even half way through college. Working or travelling a year will give them some “real world experience” as well as insight into their interests and strengths which will help them shape a path to a successful career. Once students learn a whole lot about themselves, they are likely to take full advantage of college. Take an Australian boy for an example. Enjoying his gap year in Nepal, he helps the locals in Pokhara to build their organic farms. He is so passionate about what he is doing now and he decided to pursue environmental science after he comes back to university. The internships and professional experience gained over the gap year will have much more influence on the development of one’s future than college.
In addition, taking a year off can refresh the tired-out high school graduates. In general, it will take at least ten years before jumping into the long and challenging years of university. There is no doubt that studious students will spare no effort to improve their academic performance with the expectation that they will receive offers from their dream schools. Under the competitive pressure of high school, they will not only prepare for exams such as SAT or ACT but also seek for voluntary opportunities to enrich their Curriculum Vitae. My younger sister used to travel to Cuba to volunteer with brown bears for three months. After that she went to Europe driving her Vespa across more than 20 cities. She said it was so different from school. She won’t have to attend a test at then end of the trimester, which means that there is no peer pressure or any pressure from outside. At the same time she can reorganize her mind which was full of chemical equations, historical events as well as verses from poems.
It is true that students who choose to drop a year are more likely to lose their study skills. During the gap year, there will be less chances for them to participate in actual classes in college. Without attending lectures given by famous professor and communicating face-to-face with classmates, the whole learning process will be incomplete. Many of study skills could not be developed and trained, which leads directly to the deprivation of both academic ability and motivation. However, it won’t be a potential problem nowadays because most of top universities offer MOOC (Massive Open Online Courses). Students can study random topics through free online classes. Although they don’t have any college credit, they learned a lot, met wonderful people, and keep their brains in shape for college.
Ultimately, the benefits of gap year far outweigh the only drawback because it can help exhausted students relax both mentally and physically and provide them with the opportunities to take a step back to focus on their goals, leading to a stronger sense of direction once they’re back in the classroom.!
Under the educational system of many western countries, taking a gap year, a period of time when students can take a break from formal education, has become quite common. When it comes to the pros and cons of spending at least one year working or travelling before attending university, people’ preference may vary from one to another. As for me, it is advisable for high schoolers to have a year off to work or travel, in order to relax themselves and gain new skills.
In the first place, spending a year travelling will provide high school students a good chance to escape the daily grind. As is common sense, the life of high schooler are filled with countless assignments, various quiz and exams, which nearly drive them to be stressed out. Obviously, what they need most is the vent for releasing all the tensions and pressures accuring in the rapid rhythm campus life. Consequently, taking a break from educaion and going away for while can fulfill this function well. During the gap year, students can surf in Hawaii, wake boarding in Italy, go bungee jumping in New Zealand and enjoy the sunbath on the seashore of Miami. Such a short escape from the daily bustle and hustle will be conducive to their mental and physical wellbeing. Not only this, but travelling during a gap year can provide a renewed vigor for stuy and a more focused approach to learning.
In the second place, taking a year off to do some internship can help high school students acquire more new pratical skills and thus adapt to the university life more smoothly. Many gap year students choose to do voluntary work. This could include teaching in the mountains in Nepal, a conservation project in Madagascar, an expedition in Costa Rica or an internship in Japan. All these experiences of taking voluntary jobs during a gap year will provide you with much more than any classroom setting ever can. We can learn a lot in the classroom, but it isn't until we put it into practice in the real world that we really understand what's going on. To be specific, throughout school we are surrounded by the same folks at similar ages. However, while working in a company, we are bound to discover others, make new friends, and interact with people from all walks of life, which will defnitely hone our social skills. It is undoubted that people with strong interpersonal competence can enjoy great popularity among classmates and teachers.
In a nutshell, it is a wise move to spend at least one year travelling or working for the sake of taking a break from daily routine and acquire new skills.
The club of your school plan to help one of the following group of people, 1.teach pupils reading and math
2. build houses for those who cannot afford the house
3.take care of the old
Agree or disagree: the university club wants to help others, if you are a member of them, which following would you prefer to choose? help young students in nearby primary school, help people to find new houses for rent; help old people for caring them in daily life.
Life is loaded with various difficulties and hardship, especially for old people who are incapable of taking good care of themselves because of their poor physical quality. Therefore, among the three choices of helping young students in nearby primary school, helping people to find new houses for rent and assisting old people for caring them, I definitely choose the last one.
For one thing, because of being committed to their career, the middle-age can hardly take good care of their parents. To address a sequence of job assignments, city employees, the majority of whom have turned to the middle age, are required to be immersed in their career. Take ordinary citizens as examples. When it comes to businessmen, dealing with the complicated relationship with their counterparts or consumers will lead them to be shortage of time to accompany their families, given that all their time and energy are occupied. Speaking of policemen, to maintain stable social order and crack down on any happening or underlying crimes, they are supposed to be on duty at any time, making it impossible for them to care their families. And it is also an episode likely to be applied in the movie by the film maker that policemen are woking on the investigation and cannot keep promises they make for their families , impressing audiences again and again. As for the career of teachers, what they normally do is either to prepare for their presentations or remedy their students’ assignments. Apparently, the contemporary middle-age citizens cannot take good care of their parents and college students had better provide their help.
For another thing, the process of helping the old can cultivate college students’ sense of responsibility that matters in their future life and profession. Many more universities will, literally, decide whether to admit students by checking if there is any volunteering experience like taking care of the old in a nursing home in their application materials. In an era of both highly developed economy and technology, it tends to be easier for children to develop the unwanted behaviors and unhealthy values and world outlook. Nowadays, people can often hear the News about college students failing to graduate from schools because of their addiction to video games and many overseas students catching the affluenza which refers to wealthy people who like to show their richness by purchasing many unnecessary luxuries. Therefore, many young people’s ideology has been distorted seriously and it is urgent to call on their sense of responsibility. And taking good care of the old can teach them a lot. For instance, they will be conscious of the fact that there is still a vulnerable group that needs to be assisted and their contribution to the society can drive away the solitude of the old. Thus, they will increase their confidence in undertaking more social responsibilities.
Admittedly, some others may lay emphasis on the importance of helping the young since they are the future of a nation. From what I believe, it is hype since the education of young children does not count on the help from college students. As for the statement that college students should help others rent a house, that is ridiculous since there have been a wide range of choices for tenants among diverse Apps via the Internet. To conclude, helping the old can be of enormous benefits for both the old and the young.
With the improvement of educational system, various student associations and clubs, which are meant to equip their members with practical skills, have become a great part of the campus life. Therefore, when it comes to which kinds of activities these clubs should organize, teaching pupils maths, building houses for the homeless, or helping the old, people may tend to hold different notions. As for me, attending to the senior would be the best choice, for the following reasons.
First of all, looking after old people can help students to cultivate a sense of social responsibility and patience. As we know, one defining character of young adults is that they are generally too immature to understand what social responsibility is. It is not uncommon to observe that some teenagers are inclined to destroy the public properties on purpose, or even worse, they may tease or make jokes at the older people without any respect, all of which are irresponsible behaviours. Such conducts can be corrected once the sense of duty takes root in their mind by helping the old. Obviously, in the course of taking care of old people, students will be informed of the contribution made by the old generation to the development of the whole society, thus realizing their social obligation. Plus, the trivial things such as making meals, cleaning the room and so on are involved in the process of helping the old, which cannot be done without patience.
In the second place, accompanying the old can help them to kill the boring time and relieve their loneliness. With the aging of population becoming more serious, the number of old people has been increasing in an appalling rate. Meanwhile, the facilities and places serving as entertainment for the old is deficient now. As a result, the senior now are leading a quite lonely and monotonous life so that company from others are in desperate need for them. Recently, according to a report published by China Daily, some old people were found dying after they have passed away for a dozen of days, which can clearly reflect the acutal situation of the grey. Thus, company from students can make old people keep a good mood and live a more cheerful life.
Adimttedly, some opponents may argue that tutoring the primary students can improve the academic performance of pupils and building house for the homeless can provide them a shelter. However, this not the case in reality. As for tutoring, students are not professional enough to impart knowledge to little kids efficiently so that this practice may waste time of both sides. As for building house, there are some potential safety hazzards which may make students get hurt. Therefore, I am still convinced that helping the old is the most appropriate choice for students club.
Student clubs, from the first day they came into being, have been encouraged and supported by universities throughout the world. With the aim of enriching the social, practical and academic experiences, they have also gained popularity among both parents and students. Usually, the club activities should be feasible and beneficial to students in one way or another. Therefore, compared with tutoring primary school students and dealing with daily tasks for the old, I think building houses is a project that will yield tangible results.
First, by designing and constructing a building, the students themselves will learn to transfer their academic knowledge to practice. It has been widely acknowledged that the purpose of education is to cultivate talents for society, the ones who are able to contribute to our better quality of life. University students have spent at least twelve years accumulating knowledge, and it’s time for them to show the society what they have mastered. Building a house requires knowledge of various aspects, from architectural design to construction engineering, from interior design to the arrangement of the entire landscape, all of which can only be accomplished with the joint effort by students of different majors. During the whole process, the club members will not only polish their professional skills, but also learn how to cooperate with others in a team. In this regard, assisting the old in their daily chores seems a little trivial and time-consuming, since nothing except a slight sense of achievement will be gained from this project.
Second, offering instructions in reading and mathematics to those younger school age children is by no means an easy job for university students. Do not assume that those future social elites are capable of teaching kids. As we know, children usually lack the ability of self-control and they need to be inspired, which means strict rules and proper methods are indispensable in carrying out efficient tutoring. Primary teachers, although not so adept at academic theories, are definitely experienced in stimulating children’s interest and steering their thinking. Anyone without the training had better not to make an attempt, since if they accidentally distinguish the children’s passion in learning, the result could be irreversible. However, there is no doubt that university students have the ability to build a sound and comfortable house for the ones in need. Therefore, they should do what they are good at.
To sum up, since club activities should aim at improving students’ ability instead of causing troubles, it is better for students to design and construct a building for the underprivileged.