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最新高分GRE写作提纲举例指导

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高分GRE写作提纲举例指导

14"It is necessary for everyone to read poetry, novels, mythology and other types of

imaginative literature."

同意

1、幻想类作品能够激发人的想象力和创造力;如登上月球、克隆啊等起初源都于科幻;

2、幻想类作品能够丰富人的精神世界,带给人精神力量 invigorate,很好的休息;

3、但是,人不应当只沉溺于这些作品,还应当读科学、历史等理性的书籍;

14 T "It is necessary for everyone to read poetry, novels, mythology and ot her types of imaginative literature." 14. 每个人都有必要去阅读诗、小说、神话和其他的幻想类的文学作品。

① 许多想象的作品成为文化的基础,并一直流传至今,对人类文明有着深远的影响:神化和传说。古希腊罗马神话,充满想象,对以此为基础并且同样灿烂悠久的西方文明有着深远影响。Ancient Greek and Roman myths, are full of imagination, and become the foundation of the western culture which is also gorgeous and old-line. Furthermore, we can find the influences of these myths from today’s literature、sculpture 、painting、music、and architecture.甚至在 04年的奥运会上

②想象的作品展示给人更美好、更纯洁 unsophisticated 的社会。安徒生童话 Andersen is famous for his fairy tales, Ugly Duckling, 蕴含在其中的同情心 sympathy that it implied the ugly duckling 、对于世界的爱 the love for the world the little mermaid、对诚实、勇敢的美德的歌颂 Emperor’s New Suit.

③Only imaginative works can provide meaning to historical events—through the use of devices 设备、策略 such as symbolism 象征主义 and metaphor 隐喻、暗喻。但丁 Dante 神曲Divine comedy/Divina Commedia, one of the landmarks of world literature. 宣扬了个性解放的思想。__精神的最崇高体现,将善与恶视为两极,互不相容。人要靠信仰而活着。神曲本身是一个隐喻,从黑暗的森林,到地狱hell 、净界 limbo/炼狱purgatory 、天堂的过程,代表由懵懂 ignorant、挣扎 struggle、渴望thirst for 到救赎 salvation 的历程course。但丁希望引导读者反省人性的罪恶 meditate the evils of human,思索当时混乱的局势 ponder the chaotic situation at that time ,并试着提出解决之道 bring forward a solution,使人达到幸福之地 blessed place。更深的揭露社会现象

④not everyone. A time is limited, 可以做更有用的事 B 有的人没有条件。如:战区 war zone的人民/ 非洲的挨饿的儿童 hungry African children

We have been brought up with fairy tales, mythologies and science fictions.Imaginative literature is characterized by fancy and illusion, which can inspire our imagination as well as intelligence. However, when we immerse in the fantasy contrived by imaginative work, we should also notice its dark side.

高分GRE写作提纲举例指导

15"The stability of a society depends on how it responds to the extremes of human behavior."

.会稳定性取决于许多方面

1、承认对 extreme human behavior 的反映可以体现社会稳定性镇压,说明存在很大问题,政府没有理由说服 counterproductive in the long run compromise; constructive communication 说明有稳定趋势,政府可以解决处理好

2、其实出现 extreme human behavior 就说明社会稳定性存在问题robbery; murder; suicide; rebellion

3、社会稳定性还要看经济发展、人民生活

.Immediate, existing problems好比急性疾病对于人体一样常常关系到社会的稳定,经济的运行,国家的存亡,解决不好后果十分严重。法国巴黎的暴乱,西班牙车站恐怖主义爆炸,他们直接威胁社会的稳定,必须很好的解决

但是仅仅对极端事件做出反应是不能保证社会稳定的,因为社会不稳定的根本原因没有消除;比如,虽然解决了纽约公交系统罢工,使得城市交通恢复正常。但是工人的待遇没有得到改善,等到矛盾激化岛一定程度还会出现同样的罢工,相比之下预防与维护社会的长期稳定比解决已经出现的问题更有价值,代价更小。好比致病不如保健。比如通过长期政策的作用消除贫困与种族仇恨,从根本上消灭不稳定因素。还能提高人们生活水平,必须防病为主,致病为辅。对极端事件的反应只能作为最后的保障

15T"The stability of a society depends on how it responds to the extremes of human behavior."

.会的安定取决于它对人们极端行为的响应和措施

① extreme as violence: incredib le tragedy of September 11th 政府的对...严查与对遇难者安抚工作

② extreme in science/academia: Einstein principle of relativity, 开明的环境。 否则知识分子会难得进步,甚至感到恐慌,the cultural revolution.

③ 重点应该在预防,而不是反映

④ 其他方面:如自然灾害,国际形势

Though it seems impossible that there will be a society as serene as paradise without any kind of horrible extremes of human behavior, it should never be an excuse for the failure of keeping the happening of extremes under effective control. But the stability of a society asks for much more than just agile responds and firm punishment to the extremes of human behavior. The stability of a society even requires its adequate conduction to some seemingly ordinary human behaviors in specific situations. A stable and healthy society is cherished by everyone.

高分GRE写作提纲举例指导

16"Although many people think that the luxu ries and conveniences of contemporary life are entirely harmless, in fact, they actually prevent people from developing into truly strong and independent individuals."

.分同意

1、现代生活的便利确实使人们的对技术的依赖性越来越强

depend on automobile for travel; depend on calculat or for calculation; depend on computer for writing documents; depend on Internet for in formation(do not have to memorize)

2、但是现代生活的便利也给人们带来了挑战,使变得 intellectually strong to creat more convenience, further improvve technology develop to help make life more efficient; people are expected for more productivity

3、工作的便利使人能够独立完成复杂任务 national survey analysis

16T "Although many people think that the luxuries and conveniences of contemporary life are entirely harmless, in fact, they actually prevent people from developing into truly strong and independent individuals."

.尽管很多人认为现在奢侈安逸的生活是无害的,但实际上这样的生活阻止了人们培养坚强独立的性格

① I concede 有些时候有些人在得到安逸生活以后就不思进取了。Davy, 晚年没有什么成就。

② 但是追求安逸的生活是科技发展和人类进步的动力。人们追求更多的休闲时间,从而有了更高效的工作。

③ 如果缺乏现在高科技所提供的舒适条件,有些研究成果出不来。 如:生物学领域、军事领域 都要求

sophisticated apparatus

Without modern facilities, we could hardly do anything.

While, without such modern facilities, can we become truly strong and independent individuals?It is important for us to realize the limitation of mo dern facilities and that potential danger which will be aroused if we lost our domination over modern facilities and too rely on them.

高分GRE写作提纲举例指导

17"There are two types of laws: just and unjust. Every individual in a society has a responsibility to obey just laws and, even mo re importantly, to disobey and resist unjust laws."

.同意要遵守公正法律,反对不公正法律,但也有一些法律很难区分公正与否

1、法律是维护社会秩序的工具,只有遵守法律才能维持社会公平

criminal law can deal with murder, theft, adultery , or the like; economical law provides a rule for economic activity and settles the dispute between both sides of the trade; tax law makes sure that tax is handed in according to the tax standard.

2、当法律伤害大部分人利益的时候,是不公正的,要反对

Hitler made a series of laws which could be treated as unjust laws. Under the control of Hitler and his laws, mass of the Jews were killed optionally as he liked, and no justice any more then. Still, warm hearted people in German would like to disobey the laws and hide the Jews in their house. More and more people including several judges began to resist the laws in spite of the miserable results followed.If it were not for the resisting of people to th e laws and Hitler, no succ ess would be reached.

3、但是现代社会中也有一些法律很难区分公正与否,立法者需要控制好平衡,交通事故 如果大家都被动地遵守,势必要牺牲一部分人的利益;如果每个人都根据自己的利益决定是否要遵守,会导致社会混乱;所要立法者主持公道

.有两种法律:公正的和不公正的。社会中的每个人都有责任遵守公正的法律,更重要的是,不遵守和抵制不公正的法律。

[BEGIN:] The argument that people in a society sh ould obey just law and disobey unjust law seems relatively sound, while after considering the intricate definition of law, the statement above is oversimplify the influence of the law upon the human world.

1、 首先,把法律归类为正义和非正义太过于简单 (First of all, the items just and unjust are too simple to be used to categorize the kinds of laws because so me laws may not be defined as either just or unjust.) 克隆、原子弹

2、 法律并不像人们想象的那样是一成不变的 (The laws should not keep constant, as many people think, on the contrary, they should be challenged and mended in the progress of social development.)

3、 首先,正义的概念是随着传统和其他条件而变的 (In the first place, the item "just" is going to vary greatly according to different traditions, costume and other conditions.)价值观:堕胎 abortion

4、 同样的非正义也是随着因素而改变的 (While, it is precisely the same when it comes to the unjust law.)时间:违抗政府的命令;电脑犯罪(computer crime)

5、 同样的过分强调人们遵守正义和抵制非正义的东西,也会造成一些问题 (Unduly emphasizing people to resist the unjust laws also spe ll certain risks. In the first place, unjust laws are not constant concept but may ) 首先,阻碍社会民主进程(For one thing, compelling all the people unconditional accept and obey the just laws may in some se nse impede the process of the democracy in the nation.) 其次,忽略了传统价值观念在社会中的作用( In addition, it may also undermine the fundamental influence of the traditional value sy stems upon the human society. As is so often pointed out that the regulations and laws is just a manifestation of the value and standard of the human civilizations. In this respect, inculcating people with the traditional value systems are far more important than compel them within the bound of the law.)

[END:] In summary, as one of the crucial elements of modern society, the laws have to be served as the guidance for almost all the citizens to live and work in a right way and also provide them with a stabilized climate.

ISSUE17

遵守公正法律,抵抗不公正

1 法律,which 用来维持社会的秩序和规范人们行为,没有绝对的公平。第一,很多法律不存在是否公平,仅仅用来定义,以方便其他条款的叙述。比如什么是成年人,什么是儿童,什么是死亡等等;另一方面,公正是一个主观词语,不同的价值观看到的是不同的法律。比如死刑在某些国家来看是不可容忍的,因为任何人无权剥夺其他人生命;而在另一些国家来说,他们的价值观认为杀人必须进行偿命。所以说,法律的公正与否与价值观有很大关系。

2 法律的公正也与当事人的利益有关。几乎没有一个法律的判决或者惩罚是另 plaintiff 和defendant完全满意的,那么不满意的一方必然会觉得法律不公正。比如,在交通事故中,法院根据法律条款要求被告赔偿原告 1000dollars ,被告觉得太多不能接受,那么他自然会觉得法律不公平。这种不公平是无法消除的,它在不同人的 mind里不同。如果这种情况下,被告因为所谓的不公平而拒绝进行给钱,那么等待他的是更严厉的判罚,法律是不允许违背的。所以说,对于不公正的法律不能够用抵抗的方法进行抗议。

3 在民主国家里,对于你认为不公平的法律,不管是不是真的不公平,你可以采用合法合理的手段来进行抗议。比如要求重新审理,或者引起媒体和学者们的注意,从而引起社会的广泛关注。当政府收到广泛的压力后自然就会重新研究该项条款,进行修改。这样的反抗既没有违法,有可以达到很好的效果

17 有两种法律:公平的和不公平的。社会中的每个人都应该遵守公平的法律,更重要的是,不遵守或者违抗不公平的法律。

1-法律的正义不正义没有绝对的定义 is rarely a straight forward issue

很多法律没什么正义不正义

法律的一项功能:keep everything in order

比如:未满十六岁喝酒,吸烟

未满十八岁进网吧

未满二十二岁不能结婚 法定年龄 legal age: The age at which a person may by law assume the rights and responsibilities of an adult.

1)在不同观念和文化中不同

法律的功能:to govern a society , control the behavior of its members

比如:该不该判死刑 death penalty

口香糖 chewing gum

安乐死 euthanasia

2 )在不同利益者中不同

法律的一项功能是和平解决纠纷 resolve disputes peacefully

This is especially true when it comes to personal affairs.

Even in a well-ordered society, people have disagreements and conflicts arise. The law must provide a way to resolve these disputes peacefully. If two people claim to ow n the same piece of property, we do not want the matter settled by a duel: we turn to the law and to institutions like the courts to decide who is the real owner and to make sure that the real owner’s rights are respected.

有争议就有利益纠纷,而争议永远存在。有审判就有满意不满意,just unjust 在两方定义不同。

2-法律不遵守,disobedience 会带来危害 poses certain risks , jeopardize to

比如:交通左右

Driving would be dangerous and chaotic.

法律和风俗思想情感不同:

Laws resemble morality because they are designed to control or alter our behavior. But unlike rules of morality, laws are enforced by the courts; if you break a law—whether you like that law or not—you may be forced to pay a fine, pay damages, or go to prison.

.民主社会中,法律的作用是。但是法律有时候可以被认为是 just 和unjust的。

对于不同的利益群体来说,比如污染环境的工厂,环境保护法要求进行污染治理,增加的成本造成工资下降和失业,工人利益因为法律而收到损害,认为法律 unjust,而周围的居民则认为法律是 just

对不同文化背景和宗教背景的人来说。比如刚移民到美国的亚洲人,也许在教育孩子时侯有点暴力是可以的,但是当地人肯定认为这是家庭暴力。被法律惩罚的亚洲父母认为法律是 unjust

但是法律不仅仅规定了行为,还给了合法的途径去改变,废除法律。如果 disobey 和resist ,只能降低法律权威和造成非理智的冲突,危害社会稳定,举刚才工厂的例子,村民与工人的冲突。

【题目】

"There are two types of laws: just and unjust. Every individual in a society has a responsibility to obey just laws and, even more importantly, to disobey and resist unjust laws."

【翻译】

有两种法律:公正的和不公正的。每个社会成员都有责任遵守公正的法律,但是更重要的是,更应该不遵守和反抗不公正的法律。

【提纲】

1、我们应当自觉遵守维护法律秩序,特别是公正的法律,用以维护社会的秩序,这样一方面能够维护社会的秩序,例如交通法规,另一方面通过约束他人保障公民自己的权利

2、对于不公正的法律,我们更应该不遵守或者反抗以保证维护的正义,例如希特勒二战期间屠杀犹太人的法律

3、然而,在实际生活中,由于价值观的不同,我们很难正确辨别哪些法律是不公正的法律,如对于安乐死和死刑,不同国家法律有不同的规定

4、结论,在可辨认的前提下,我们要坚决遵守公正法律抵制不公正的法律

.正和不公正的法律

一、Can we?不行。不同意,for reasons having to do with subjective definition of justice, the ideal form of laws, and the principle of legislation.

二、公正是不好说的Fairness, a subjective judgm ent, can never be the standard of a law because everyone has a distinctive measure.

1.每个人都有 value system ,priorities. 杀人犯, abortion

2.不可能 gratify每个人, emotional, radical, chaos

三、法律理想的状态

1.如果满足每个人,将不再满足抽象性。满足每个人 unilateral 意味着ruin the integrity 和practicality

2. 个人 judgment 不能带代表全部,尽管他 cries for justice

四、涉及到法律的原则性问题 bills are voted by the majority and after their pass, everyone is equal, which is the base of any democratic society.

1.法案是多数人通过的,且它通过以后,法律面前人人平等。这样使得人们德权利得到保护,不同于奴隶封建社会,权威想干什么就干什么

2.Resist 意味着赋予某人 privilege,破坏法律的平等性

3. erudite 的Socrates

17T "There are two types of laws: just and unjust. Every individual in a society has a responsibility to obey just laws and, even more importantly, to disobey and resist unjust laws."

.有两种法律:公平的和不公平的。社会中的每个人都应该遵守公平的法律,更重要的是,应该不遵守或者违抗不公平的法律两个assertion

①把法律分为公平的和不公平的过于简单。有很多内容没有包括。如:网络犯罪

②对于公平和不公平的定义在变化。如:是否应有死刑(execution) , euthanasia

③对第二个assertion: 确实要遵守公平的 Undoubtedly, every citizen should obey just laws, which preconditions a stable and orderly society.

④对不公平的要看情况, 可以反抗,同时也促进法律进步。Yet it is more important for individuals to resist unjust laws, for doing so will help improve the legal system of a nation.不合作主义 civil disobedience Laws and regulations are set up along with the entr enchment of a government serving as a means to control the country.

Since laws are built up under the power of government, which represents the public interest whereas run by a few individuals, it is qu ite possible that laws are constituted in the name of representing the majority while on the contrary in a few individuals favor.

Facing unjust laws, every individual has the very responsibility to re sist them.

No matter that whether every individual could reach an agreement on unjust or not, one point is important that we should put forward our opinions toward unjust laws.

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