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GRE写作高分论述写法指点

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GRE作文看重逻辑思维能力,但逻辑思维能力在短时间很难获得很大的提高,不过具体到GRE的Issue写作中,我们是可以通过学会逻辑的组织技巧来组织论证,下面小编就和大家分享GRE写作高分论述写法指点,来欣赏一下吧。

GRE写作高分论述写法指点

1. 对特殊词汇做前提式讨论

即对题目中某个特殊的单词进行前提式讨论,作为全文展开讨论的基础。

可以用作前提论证的素材单词往往包括:

A、带有主观感情色彩的判断词,比如Just,Correct,Effective,Reasonable等等。

在讨论这些观点词时就必须确立一个标准,进而为全文的讨论确定标准,常见的比如“对社会中大部分人有利”“对社会稳定有利”“能使资源有效分配,最低投入最高产出”等等。

B、作用、意义、任务等值得讨论的名词关键词,比如Education,Government,Law,Teacher等等。

这些词其实在间接讨论A类判断词,即“B类词干什么才是A类词(教育干什么才是对的,法律干什么才是有效的……)”,由此确定判别一个事物该做什么的标准,才能在全文中讨论题目说的此事物做的东西是否正确。

前提论证的好处是从字面出发,确定主基调,可以防止全文的发展出现价值观的自我矛盾导致的中心论点混乱,从而将文章后面的各段拉到一起。换句话说,就是我们讨论什么问题时,需要先把什么别的一个小问题说清楚。前提论证法可以有效保证后文段落的逻辑有效联系。

2. 由低到高提升论述层次

前提论证属于前提层面,后面自然有更高阶的层面,之前提到的学术、社会、个人就是这种层面层次。

其实我们写ISSUE在组织分论点无外乎就两种,一种同层面展开,一种层面升华式展开。同层面展开可以有辨证法、分领域讨论,而不同层面的升华则包括了不同的哲学层次。这二者都属于ISSUE题目要求中的“perspectives”。

而大家最喜欢用的保留式同意/反对,那个保留论点通常就是站在不同的层面上来看待问题,从而得出的不同结论。

一方面,层面升华可以使你的论证涵盖不同的逻辑深度,从而保证对问题看法的全面性,另一方面,层面升华也能使文章的整体组织层层递进,做到结构严密。

具体来说,常见的层面包括:

A、字面意义。见前提论证

B、学术层面。学习知识的有效性、合理性等等。这个层面比较浅,原因在于我们还要追问学习的目的是什么?接下来可以引出社会层面和个人层面。

C、社会层面。一个论点可能本身没什么错误,但一旦承认它的正确性,就会导致种.种不堪设想的后果,比如过分强调有的法律不公正而造成犯罪分子有自己的道理,或者过分强调社会秩序的重要性造成独裁当道民不聊生。

D、个人层面。之所以把这个放到最高层面是因为社会效应最终是作用于个人的。升华到最后往往是人类幸福、身心愉悦这种目的。个人层面的评论标准有很多,比如人本主义、弗洛伊德精神分析学说、唯物论、社会道德、先验主义等等。具体的可以查阅相关资料。

层面升华的好处是可以让文章环环相扣,步步深入,最后的论证深度恰倒好处,而结构也严密可靠。

3. 结合正反两面论证

正反论证就是说先说明了一个事物的必要性,然后说明缺乏它以后的后果。表面上看这象是废话,但其实正反论证能让你说的问题更加明白有有力,而且由于逻辑转折简单,非常好把握。对于打字速度快的同学正反论证其实十分好用。

正反论证的好处很明显,正反段相互依存,互为解释,因此两段之间的逻辑完全咬合。如果全文都以这种手法组织,结构组织就会变得的非常轻松。官方范文就是个很好的例子:说明专家的必要性后先说正“反”,再说反“反”,整个文章两头照顾,内容严谨。

在具体的操作上,正反论证往往是用反去证明正缺失(或过分)的后果,借以说明论证“正”的过程的合理性。

严格来讲对于过度的所生的“反”应该另立名词,我这里为了方便就把二者放到一起说了。因为没有正确性就没有过分的可能,这一点上过度所产生的“反”与“正”的“反”是相同的。物极必反也可以说是辩证法的一个角度,当然与层面升华后产生的反面评价是不同的。

GRE写作高分范文:道德与法律

Many problems of modern society cannot be solved by laws and the legal system because moral behavior cannot be legislated.

现代社会的很多问题是法律和立法系统无法解决的,因为道德行为是无法用法律约束的。

GRE写作范文:

The proposition asserts that the laws and the legal system cannot resolve many problems problem of the modern society since moral behavior cannot be legislated. In my point of view, I fundamentally agree with the speaker, as discussed below.

First of all, I concede that the laws and the legal system are essential to the modern society and they can resolve many problems. Common sense tells us that everyone has his own position and behavior, depending on their beliefs, experiences, knowledge, professions and emotional concern.However, we cannot simply let everyone do everything that he or she wants, since this will lead to mess and may harm the stability of the society. Thus, the government has to announce the laws and build a just legal system to restrict the citizens. Only by doing this, can the society get to a balance and harmonious status? For instance, the industrial factories want to expel the polluted water into the river without making it clean. If there is not a law or a legal system to restrict the factories from expelling the polluted water, the poisoned water may get into the river, even the sea. This will be really harmful. It may firstly kill the animals living in the river, it may also further harm the human beings if they have drunk the water or eaten the polluted fish. It may bring damage to the environment as well. Considering this, we have to establish laws to prevent the factories from expelling polluted water and other detriments. From this case, we can see how important laws and legal systems are.

However, we have to admit that the laws and the legal systems cannot resolve many problems in the modern society as well, such as the usage of euthanasia, the homosexual marriage. When the Watson and Crick found the double-helix structure of the gene and the scientists further found the way to clone. It brings many social problems that the laws and legal systems cannot resolve. Should the scientists clone human beings? If yes, then what is the relationship between the two? Do the cloned people have the same right with the other human being or even whether they are human beings or not? Though the legal systems in many countries ban the scientists from cloning people, some scientists still do this secretly. All these questions cannot simply be resolved by the laws as it is related to the morality.

Additionally, the laws can not involve the moral behavior. If the laws consider the moral behaviors too much, it will lose justice. Nevertheless, only considering the laws without morals may cause mistake. For instance, in India, their law is statutes given by the government and the judge can only his judges on the bases of the existing laws. Once, a mother in India killed her son,who is a murderer and did lots of bad things. The police in India tried to catch him for years without any result. He committed so many crimes that even death cannot atone for the offence.His mother knows that her son will kill many more people if she does not kill him. Thus, when her son came back to see her one day, she killed him with the poison. In this case, to kill the mother is probably not the best choice, since this may make people think that being just is wrong. But according to the present law, the judger had to sentenced the mother to death, and this brought a widely debate thought out the country.

Further, only the morality can make people to understand what is right and what is wrong, and to restrict people with morality will be a good way. Under the pressure of laws and legal systems,many people just do the bad thing secretly because they do not know that they are wrong. And many people may even think that the laws are wrong and disobey or even resist the law. They may commit crimes again after they are punished. Only when a people have known the morality and find the right measurement to distinguish right and wrong, they can find their mistakes and become a better person. A statistics involving many prisons in China find that the prisoners who learn morality and know their mistakes have a much lower rate of committing crime again.

In the final analysis, we can see that the laws and legal system cannot resolve all the problems in the society and therefore we should agree with the author.

GRE写作高分范文:丑闻

Scandals-whether in politics, academia, or other areas-can be useful.They focus our attention on problems in ways that no speaker or reformer ever could.

丑闻――无论是政治、学术还是其他领域――可能会是有用的。丑闻可以用演说家或者改革家无法使用的手段让我们注意到某些问题。

GRE写作范文:

Scandals occur in nearly every field that human set foot in, both revealed and incubative.Once people recognize that the person they adored yesterday is actually a liar by the exposednesses of his scandal, the first reaction may be anger, sorrow and depression.However, if rational rethinking and remediation have been taken after the reports of scandals, actually greater progresses can always be achieved compared with the efforts made by the daily boring speeches made by speakers and reformers.

Scandals can clearly show us the hidden unreasonable and unjust regulations, therefore administers or the public can adjust or even correct those errors. After the Watergate Event, not only President Nixon lost his job, but further influence was conducted by the public and medium. They realized that the problem of the abuse of power which was neglected in the past. As a result, a closer scrutiny upon the high officials of government prevents them from abusing their power any longer. Recently, the filthy relationship between Juventus Club and several references was publicized by medium, which shocked the football circle by those large holes in the institutions of football league and thus forced the Italia Football Association to take actions towards Juventus, references and the ill institutions. While Juventus has been deprived the former championship, a series of more appropriate regulations have at last been added into the football systems. There is no denying that those scandals indeed prohibit the daily operations and developments of certain fields to some extent, but these deleterious effects can be temporary, if proper measures have been done immediately. In this case, scandals may become stimulations that can provoke the awareness of the emergency of the scandals, which is necessary for establishment of an ultimate solutions to the present problems.

Furthermore, compared with the accomplishments endowed by the professional speakers and reformers, the progresses made by the aftereffects of scandals are often more significant and fast. A scandal maker usually has his position in high status, which grants him power great enough to make his underground and illegal behavior so harmful and astonishing that it can be called a scandal. Before their scandals have been known to the public, they are generally admired and trusted by their superiors and inferiors, as well as the medium and public. Therefore, it is difficult or even impossible for speakers and reformers to win the battle against those scandal makers and their inequitable laws or regulations without the support of anyone. No one believes or even pays attention on whatever the speakers and reformers assert, if the scandal makers are trying to cover up those events by their power and trust they gained at the same time. Consequently those errors remain forever. Once the secrets of the scandal makers give away, however, their aura fades, legends evaporate, so does the trust and power endued. Under such circumstances that all sides feel unsatisfied and disappointed, it is much easier for reformers to draw the focus on their ameliorative allegations towards the long existed problems, and thus, the improvements can be made. Perhaps it may be strange to accept the ironic conclusion that scandals do play a more vital role in healing the morbid system of a certain realm than those reformers do sometimes, but oftentimes it is scandal that helps the reformers a lot to strike their targets, which leads to a future primary achievements for society.

Despite the forgoing contributions of scandals, they are not without its apparent problems. Hypersensitive worries may lead serious disorders or even disasters. A threshold trouble is about the excessive revealment of privacies of the officials, stars, or other persons who were doubted to have scandals. This was often done by some so-called responsible mediums in the name of observation the social problems. As a result, the bothered officials or the stars can hardly utilize their full abilities to fulfill their tasks or jobs. Just to meet the curiosity of the public so that they can bolster their sales and profits, these mediums' detective behaviors will inevitably bring about disorders to those who in charge in some areas. Secondly, overstatements of the grave effects of scandals may shadow the contributions of the scandal makers unfairly. Although Clinton was accused by his rose event, his dedication towards the resuscitation and prosperity of America's economy during his term of office cannot be denied. If his fault was overemphasized present, he may have to resign immediately, and his economic ability can no longer serve the society,which is an obvious loss of the society.

To be just, I acknowledge that most people hate to witness scandals happening around them. What is more, recessions and the private violations always come along with scandals.Nevertheless, seeing from another angle, if the scandals are in fact ineluctable, it may be wiser to bravely face with the extant problems. We should find them out and then correct them rather than simply denying their existence.


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